Tuberculosis or TB is a disease which is infectious that is being plagued over human from a very long time since from the Neolithic times, there are basically two different types of organisms which are responsible for the cause of tuberculosis which are Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis both of these can cause TB in humans.
TB is a bacterial infection or a multisystemic infectious disease which is caused by the rod shaped bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is also considered as the main source of causing TB , the leading cause for the death of HIV patients is due to the HIV associated infection of TB to the patient, the symptoms of TB are having a wide range which is termed as ” great imitator ” by many people who are studying the infection of this disease and this is due to the reason that TB symptoms are able to mimic as of the different other disease symptoms there are some more terms but which we can describe TB and these are latent, cutaneous, pulmonary , Pott’s disease , consumption , active and others. Test most common place at where in many of the cases TB developed is the pulmonary tract and for the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis human is the best host as compared to the animals.
It has been studied that from many centuries people are being infected by TB from around 8000 BC before and it can cause the death in around 25% of the adults and was being considered as the most leading cause of death especially in the US till the 1900s. The cause of TB or the causing bacteria was discovered by the Robert Koch in 1882 than after it with the increase in research over TB for the initiative of public health some treatments like the isolation of patient which is also known as quarantine and the production of TB treating drugs has been increased.
Now, TB is not only a single kind of disease it has several types but there are only two main types of tuberculosis which are active or latent TB infections. Active TB is most dangerous has the symptoms of this disease are producing actively and can easily be transmitted from the infected person to healthy person while on the other hand latent TB disease is caused when the person is affected by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria and when these bacteria do not produce symptoms of TB and in the sputum there are no TB bacteria. Latent tuberculosis cannot transfer from one person to another unless the person gets active TB due to the failure of the immune system. The resemblance of latent TB is almost like the chicken pox which remains dormant but can become active in the later phases of life.
Causes of Tuberculosis
The basic cause of TB is due to the infection of human body by the bacteria named as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or mycobacteria , this bacteria grow slowly in the aerobic condition and is capable of spreading within the body cells , this bacteria has a unique cell wall which prevents it from the body’s defense system and due to this it can survive in our body very easily. Although some Mycobacterium can also be destructed by the defense system of the body and these destructed bacterias can also get spread in the blood or lymphatic pathways of various organs like in lungs, kidneys, bones etc which is not good.
Early Symptoms of TB
There are various symptoms which can appear during TB and the major responsive and cause pulmonary tuberculosis can effect about 85% or patients. The symptoms of TB can occur before or at the time of diagnosis it is very important to treat it in early stage otherwise it can become dangerous for us. So , here we are going to tell you about some of the early symptoms of TB which will help you in getting pre-information about it , so the early symptoms of the are as follows :
1 . A lot of sweat during night time.
2 . Decrease or loss of appetite
3 . Weight loss or muscle loss problem.
5. Hemoptysis or we can also say it in simple words coughing out of bloody sputum.
6. The breath gets shorten.
7. Lymph nodes get swollen.
8. Chest pain mostly at the time of breathing.
There are also various types of TB which have some unique and different symptoms with them let us have a look at these types also :
1. Skeletal TB –
This is also known as the Pott’s disease in which common symptoms are
* Spinal pain
* Stiffness in back
* Paralysis ( in some cases )
2. TB arthritis –
* In this type of TB mostly pain occurs in a single joint like as of hips , knees , shoulder etc.
3. TB meningitis –
The common symptoms of this TB are
* Headache ( the length or strength may vary but remains persistent )
* Changes in mental state
4. Genitourinary TB –
* Flank pain
* Masses or lumps which are also termed as granulomas
* Increased frequency
5. Gastrointestinal TB –
* Non-healing ulcer
* Difficulty can be felt by a patient at the time of swallowing
* Abdominal pain
* Diarrhea ( it can also be bloody )
6. Pleural TB –
* Pleural effusion
7. Caseous TB –
* Necrotic ( dead and dying )
* The tissue which has been infected with this TB bacteria becomes soft , dry and cheesy in appearance.
8. XDR TB –
* The patient can get infected with those TB bacterias which are resistant to some of the most used or effective anti – TB medications
* XDR is known as extensively drug-resistant.
9. Multidrug-resistant TB ( MDR TB ) –
* In this type of TB patient gets infected by those bacteria which are resistant towards multiple drugs which are used to cure TB.
Symptoms of TB
Tuberculosis mainly affects the regions of lungs but it is also able to affect other parts of body , if you got TB outside the lungs than the symptoms of it may also vary and in lack of the treatment of TB it can easily get spread to all other parts of the bloodstream which is harmful , so let’s have a look over the symptoms of TB in different parts :
* The TB which infect bones of our body can easily lead you towards the spinal pain or the destruction of joints.
* The infection of TB to the liver and kidney regions can easily impair the filtration procedure of them and which can also result in getting blood to your urine.
* The TB which infects part of the brain is also known as the cause of meningitis.
* The TB can also affect the heart of our body and in this it simply targets the pumping ability of heart which can result in a condition known as the cardiac tamponade which can even be fatal or lead to death.
So , these are some of the symptoms of TB to different regions of the body and we have mentions some common symptoms of TB above which are found in each case.
Symptoms of TB in Chest
If by any means you got TB in the chest than you may experience the common symptoms of TB , now we are going to have a look over some of the symptoms of Tb in the chest which can easily be experienced by the patient of it , these are :
1 . Blood in the cough of patient.
2 . A lot of sweat especially during night.
3 . Feeling Fatigue , tired.
4 . High Fever can also occur.
5 . The person may experience a chill.
6 . Loss of appetite or decreased hunger.
7 . A lot of coughing which can even last up to three or four weeks.
8 . Loss of weight which is unintentional.
9 . Pain in your chest.
10 . Pain at the time of breathing or coughing.
So, these are above mentioned some of the symptoms of TB in chest which can be felt by a patient and on occurring of these symptoms proper medication is required because a little delay can lead you towards complications which can even be fatal or death causing so, be aware and take early treatment for it , you can also get the symptoms of Tuberculosis in throat like as of pain in throat or a sore throat these may also be an indication of having Tb.
Risk factors for Tuberculosis
There are many people who have this question in their mind that is TB a contagious disease or not , so the answer to this question is TB is a contagious disease as it can spread by the direct or indirect contact with the patient. You can easily get TB from an infected person so it was advised to make distance with TB patient , the people who are very close with an infected person are at the great risk of developing TB to them which normally includes :
* The family or friends having TB disease of a healthy person.
* The people who got migrated from one place to another in the world for any reason are at the great risk of developing TB.
* There are many people who live in groups or are affected by any severe disease are also at the very high risk of developing TB in them these person’s include homeless persons , people who are already having the HIV infection , drug users who consume drug by injection.
* the people who live in areas or work in the areas where infected persons are present also have the high risk of getting this disease like as of hospitals , correctional facilities , residential homes for people who are having HIV , homeless shelters , nursing homes etc.
Now , this is not necessary that everyone who is having or infected with the latent TB or TB germs will develop an active disease of TB , it mostly gets developed to those persons who are at the very high risk of developing active TB disease to them are those having a very weak immune system like as of :
* People who are suffering from the HIV / AIDS infection.
* Patients having cancer and undergoing chemotherapy.
* People who have recently got an organ transplantation.
* Those persons who are suffering from the chronic disease like as of diabetes or the kidney disease.
* Babies or young children who are in their growth phase and has less mature immune system.
* The person who is still going through some specialized treatments like for the autoimmune disorders which generally includes rheumatoid arthritis or the Crohn’s disease.
So , these above mentioned are some of the conditions in which chances of getting TB increases so , if any person is suffering from any of the above condition is at the high risk of developing TB or active TB disease.
So , it is very important to diagnose TB at the early age if it is not done then you are at the great change of developing complications within you and it can even be fatal , if your TB remains untreated and it is active in your body than this can affect your lungs badly and can also get spread to other parts of your body through bloodstream below we are providing some of the complications for tuberculosis here are these :
* Joint damage – If you are suffering from the tuberculosis arthritis and it is untreated then this will affect your hips and knees which can be drastically fatal.
* Heart disorders – It is very rare that tuberculosis will affect the tissues of your body which are surrounded around your heart but sometimes this can happen which causes inflammation and the collection of fluid in tissues which can generally interfere the function of heart which is able of pumping blood , if you got this type of condition then it is known as the cardiac tamponade which can be fatal.
* Spinal pain – It is a very common complication to have back pain and stiffness during tuberculosis.
* Liver or kidney damage – As we all know that the main function of liver and kidney is to filter waste or impurities from body or bloodstreams but during the complication of tuberculosis this function of liver and kidney get impaired which is harmful.
* Swelling of membranes which cover the brain ( meningitis ) – In this situation the patient can get a long-lasting or an intermittent headache which remains for weeks and the changes in the mental state also take place.
These above mentioned are some of the complications which can be faced by one who is currently suffering from tuberculosis now it is very important to take proper prevention for not having this deadly disease here below we are going to tell you about some of the prevention from TB.
If you are found positive for the active or latent tuberculosis than it is very necessary for you to take proper medication as advised by the doctor which will reduce your effects as you are also aware that tuberculosis is a contagious disease so it is advised to keep your family or friends safe from getting this disease.
It is very common that the disease might get spread to your family or friends from you so for keeping then safe you should follow same precautious steps like –
1 . During the starting weeks of treatment for TB you should not go to the work or classroom and stay at your home.
2 . You should keep your mouth covered, this will prevent the infection to spread further especially during a cough or sneeze and do not use the same tissue every time just through it after using it once or wash it properly if it is cloth.
3 . You have to live in a properly ventilated room as germs get spread easily in a close room or area where air does not get proper movement.
4 . Do not leave the course in the middle you should complete it as prescribed by the doctor.
So , here in this article we told you about each and every major things of TB and also told you how you can get TB , then after it we further move on towards the symptoms of different types of TB which should be known by one to get proper treatment and early diagnose, after it we told you about the different risk factors which lead you at the great risk of developing TB. Hope you will like the article and on the persistence of symptoms contact your doctor immediately a small carelessness can lead you toward the complications which can even become fatal. We also at the last come to learn about some points by which we can take prevention and stop it from getting spread further to your family or friends.