Typhoid is basically a bacterial fever which is caused by the bacteria named as Salmonella typhi. In the industrialized countries spread or cases of typhoid fever are very rare. Typhoid is although common nowadays but it can become complicated with a little carelessness and can become the serious health problem which can be even life threatening especially to the children.
The bacteria causing typhoid fever is present in the contaminated food and water from where it can go into the body on consumption if this type of items or with the close direct contact with the infected person. Mostly with the treatment, it gets the cure and the patient feels much more relaxed and comfortable in a very less time within few days after the antibiotic treatment starts although the cases of severity or death due to typhoid are less it can even cause death if taken lightly or do not get cured in time. The transmission of typhoid virus is from human to human or on the intake of any contaminated food item as the bacteria do not carry by any other vector. The salmonella typhi bacteria enter into the intestine through the mouth and remains there for around 1 to 3 weeks and then it goes to the walls of intestine from where it got transmitted in blood and get spread in all over the body through blood streams by infecting the other organs and tissue of the body. The exposure time for the bacteria in the body is around six to thirty days depending person to person after which the symptoms start to show. The diagnosis of typhoid fever is mostly done with the sample of blood , sometimes it can also be done with help if bone marrow or stools. In most of the people a question always come in mind that is typhoid contagious, the answer to it is yes because typhoid can spread from the direct or indirect contact of one person with the another. As typhoid is being very common among people so it is very important to, first of all, know the main cause of it why it occurs and how.
Causes of Typhoid Fever
As we told you earlier that the main cause of typhoid fever is salmonella typhi bacteria. There are various causes by which this bacteria can get transmitted into your body if you also wanted to know about them then have a look below :
Fecal-oral route of transmission
The salmonella typhi bacteria responsible for causing typhoid fever mostly gets spread into the body through the contaminated food or water and also can get transmitted through the direct contact with an infected person who is already suffering from typhoid. In the countries which are at developing level , where typhoid fever is endemic most of the cases of bacteria transmittance are due to the intake of contaminated drinking water or due to the poor sanitation. In the countries full of industrialization people carry bacteria responsible for typhoid fever while traveling from one place to another and can spread the bacteria to another healthy person by various means like fecal – oral route.
When any person is infected from the Salmonella typhi bacteria , it can get transmitted to the feces and urine of that person and with this you can come in exposure to the bacteria if you take food from the person who is already infected from typhoid and has not washed hands properly after toilet. The water can also get contaminated with bacteria and on consuming this water you can get infected with it.
From Typhoid carriers
When anyone got typhoid in their lifetime then it may be possible that even after the proper antibiotic treatment he can get or carry the typhoid bacteria even after complete recovery. The carriers of typhoid can have the salmonella bacteria in their intestinal tract , gall bladder and other parts for many years and such people are known as chronic carriers they can shed these bacteria in their feces by which other people get affected from it and within themselves they do not have any sign or symptom of the disease. So , if any person has proved positive for the carrier in the test should not be allowed to work in the area with children or old people as they are more prone to get infected until they are considered clear from this disease.
So , by this we can say that typhoid is a contagious disease which can easily spread from the infected person to a healthy person.In the context of typhoid carrier a history is also attached with it , as per saying there was a woman named as Mary who was the first carrier of typhoid , she was a cook after the first exposure to typhoid she becomes the carrier of it when she cooks food it becomes contaminated with the typhoid bacteria and due to which more than 53 people got infected and 3 died due to the complexity of typhoid in New York.
After a lot of findings, it was found that she is the carrier for typhoid so public health authorities ask Mary to quit her job of a cook or remove the gallbladder as she can make it her people infected towards typhoid but she denied of it and remains the chronic carrier for the disease. After a lot of pressure, Mary stops her work but later after some time she returns back with the changed name and starts the same procedure due to which she got imprisoned for the safety of other people. After another outburst of typhoid she develops Pneumonia and dies due to it after 26 years of imprisonment. So , this proves that the person can become a carrier of typhoid bacteria even for a lifetime if not cured properly so complete medication is very necessary.
What is Typhoid Fever
Typhoid fever is the most serious threat in all over the world especially in the developing countries where more than 26 million of people gets affected in a year. This disease is considered as endemic in the countries like India , Africa , South east Asia , South America and in various other areas of the world. It has been concluded that the children are more prone or at high risk of developing this disease and often get affected but the symptoms are milder in children as compared to the adults. If you are the citizen of that country where the spread of typhoid fever is very rare that you are being at a great risk of developing it when you travel to any other place.
Risk factors for Typhoid Fever
The risk factors which increases of getting typhoid fever are as follows :
1 . Working in those areas where the spread of typhoid fever is endemic.
2 . Travelling in the areas having endemic typhoid fever.
3 . Drinking the contaminated water through sewage which contains the salmonella typhi.
4 . Having direct or close contact with the infected person or someone who has recently been recovered from the typhoid fever.
5 . People living in the areas with poor sanitation.
So , these above are some factors which lead you to high risk of getting infected with the typhoid fever. Now , if you are looking for the signs and symptoms of typhoid fever then let us come to know about them. These symptoms of typhoid help us in getting advance knowledge about the development of disease so that initial action can be taken in time to cure it.
Symptoms of Typhoid
The symptoms of typhoid generally begin to show after the 6 to 30 days of exposure of person with the bacteria. The major symptoms which are known for typhoid are fever and rash although they can be founded in other diseases too. The fever occurs with the very high temperature in typhoid which can last for several days as high as up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit or 39 to 40 degree Celsius. The rashes do not occur for every patient but in the people who have rashes, they appear of red color spots especially on the areas like neck or abdomen. So the symptoms of typhoid fever include –
1 . Weakness in body
2 . Abdominal pain
3 . A headache
4 . Constipation
5 . Loss of appetite
6 . Weight loss
7 . Rash
8 . Swelling in the abdomen at extreme level
9 . Fever with increased temperature up to 104 degrees Fahrenheit
10 . Diarrhea
11 . Fatigue
12 . Sweating
13 . Pain in muscles and joints
14 . Dry cough
15 . Lethargy
These are above provided some basic symptoms which occur during typhoid apart from them some rare symptoms by which one can get affected are confusion , vomiting etc but they are not considered severe. If the treatment of typhoid does not start on time then it can become serious in which the bowel can get perforated which can even lead to the peritonitis which is an infection of tissues which lies inside the abdomen and considered as fatal in most of the cases. There is another infection which is almost similar to typhoid and caused by the Salmonella enterica which is generally known a paratyphoid , it is less fatal and not more complicated. So , with help of these symptoms you can get the stimated idea of typhoid but for confirmation it is necessary to have the typhoid test which is also known as widal test with your blood sample pathologists confirm the presence or absence of bacteria in your blood which is important for the confirmation.
Preventions of Typhoid
If you wanted to get prevented from typhoid then you should take care of some points which are very important and needed to learn let us know that what preventions you should take :
- You should not share anything with the person who is already suffering from typhoid.
- Avoid any direct contact from the person who has just recovered from typhoid or at the recovery mode.
- Do not consume contaminated food and water.
- Avoid eating raw vegetables and fruits or wash them properly before use.
- Wash your hands frequently with soap and luke warm water specially before eating anything it will prevent you from infections.
Complications that can occur due to untreated typhoid
If typhoid remains untreated or proper medication is not taken then it can lead to the complications which can even be fatal causing death. Let us come to know about these complications which can be faced by one who has left over the treatment in middle.
Intestinal bleeding or holes
This one is considered as the more serious complication of typhoid fever which is intestinal bleeding and holes ( perforations ) in the intestine. In the third week of continued uncured illness of typhoid you can develop this complication you intestine become perforated in which the small intestine and large intestine develop holes in it due to which the content present in intestine started leaking and coming out of body in the abdominal cavity which causes abdominal pain , vomiting , nausea , infection in blood also called sepsis etc. This is considered as the life threatening complication and an immediate medical treatment is required for curing it.
Apart from this the other complications which are not that much fatal but needed to be cured early are:
1 . Pneumonia
2 . Inflammation of heart muscles also called myocarditis
3 . Inflammation of the pancreases also termed as pancreatitis
4 . Inflammation if the heart lining and its valves which is termed as endocarditis
5 . Infection in your kidney or bladder
6 . Psychiatric problems like as of delirium , paranoid psychosis , hallucination etc.
When you are suffering from Typhoid fever at that situation it is very important to take care of your diet and eat the food which is recommended by your doctor. Here below we are going to provide you a list of some food items which you should eat during typhoid :
- Food which have high calorie intake with them like as of milk , wheat , bread , pasta , bananas , white rice , potatoes etc as this type of food will prevrnt the problem of weight loss and will help you in maintaining your weight.
- In typhoid the problem of dehydration is very common so you are suggested to take as much fluid content you can which will maintain the water or fluid level in your body and prevent you from the situation of dehydration like you can take fruit juice , vegetable soup and ofcourse a good amount of water which is very important.
At a Glance,
So , this was all about the typhoid fever we learn a lot about it how does it cause , signs and symptoms of typhoid , risk factors and its complications the basic thing which you need to take care of is that it is a common and contagious disease which needs to be cured as early as possible on its exposure a little carelessness or untreated typhoid can lead to complications which are life threatening and are able to cause death so if any symptoms of typhoid are shown in your body then contact to your doctor immediately. As we told you that typhoid is basically a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria especially in the developing states and if it remains untreated then in around 25 percent cases it has been proved as fatal. The common symptoms of typhoid fever generally include the high fever and gastrointestinal problems. We also come to know that some people become the carrier of typhoid bacteria even after the disease is cured and they are able to infect another healthy person’s as being a carrier of it. The only thing which can cure typhoid is antibiotics as they have a good impact on bacteria and can cure the disease. All over we suggest you take proper hygiene and avoid consumption of contaminated food or water as these are the major source which spread typhoid fever and take proper medication once after the confirmation it.